César Abraham Vallejo Mendoza was born on March 16, 1892 in Santiago de Chuco (La Libertad) Andes in northern Peru, in a family with Spanish and indigenous roots. His parents were Don Francisco Vallejo and Mrs. Santos Mendoza. He was the youngest of 12 children and a child knew the misery, but also the warmth of home, away from the orphanage which was incurable.
He studied primary school in the local municipal and school in San Nicolas de Huamachuco.
She studied literature at the National University of Trujillo, where political and intellectual experiences shared with the group north, making up Antenor Orrego, Jose Eulogio Garrido, Alcides Spelucín, among others. He also writes in the newspaper “La Reforma” and taught in school “San Juan”, where he was master of Ciro Alegria. In 1915
obtained a bachelor’s degree with his thesis “Romanticism in Spanish literature.”
Travel to Lima in 1918, when he published his first book of poems, The Black Heralds, marking the moment of indecision and uncertainty experienced Peruvian poetry in those years. The book links the provincial family life with a sense of universal solidarity.
In Lima befriended Gonzales Prada, José María Eguren and Valdelomar and began studies at the Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos.
Vallejo sent a poem to Clemente Palma, the renowned writer, who is bitter comment: “Do you think Mr. Vallejo to put a stupidity over another is to write poetry?” Palm responds to the desolate Vallejo. “Better forget poetry” he says.
Motivated by the love he professed for her mother, returns to his homeland where he is wrongly accused of arson and jailed for 112 days. Thanks to pressure from the intellectuals of the time, he got his freedom
but this experience was a critical and continuing influence on his life and work, and reflected very directly in several poems of his next book, Trilce (1922)
Trilce is the most important book of Peruvian art. It is regarded as a pivotal moment in the renewal of the Spanish American poetic language, for in it we see Vallejo away from traditional models that had hitherto followed, incorporating some new features of the edge and making a distressing and perplexing immersion in the depths of human condition that have never before been explored.
In 1923 he traveled to Paris, where he intensified his literary and journalistic.Works, from there, in the Peruvian magazine “Present”, “Variety” and “Amauta”.Magazine published in France the “Pro” and helps “Journal” of Paris. For the first time is included in the “New Index of Latin Poetry.” Meet Victor Raul Haya de la Torre and affiliates to integrate the first cell APRA APRA founded in Paris.
The Paris years were of extreme poverty and severe physical and moral suffering for Vallejo.
In 1928 meets and begins to live with Georgette. That year he traveled to the Soviet Union and on his return to Paris breaks with the APRA, declared communist.
In 1929 he returned to the Soviet Union and a year later he traveled to Spain. He returned to Paris but was expelled because of his communist, then decided to move to Spain again.
In 1931 he published his novel The Tungsten. Travels back to the Soviet Union and is part of the Communist Party of Spain. In 1932, he returned to Paris and live illegally.
In 1934 he married Georgette. Shortly after he returned to Spain, where civil war breaks out. This moves the poet and inspired by their beautiful third book: Spain away this cup from me. In 1937 he attended the Congress of Antifascist Writers in Madrid. Write the book “Human Poems”.
Some years after returning to Paris, where he died a rainy day on Good Friday, April 15, 1938. His remains rest in the cemetery of Mount-Rouge, France. In 1939 were published, posthumously, the Human Poems.